The primary goal of seed collecting by European Native Seed Conservation Network (ENSCONET) members is the long-term conservation in seed banks of representative samples of the genetic diversity of European seed-bearing plant populations (with priority being given to those that are most threatened). These samples can then be used in research, trialling, reintroduction, reinforcement of weak populations and habitat restoration. Many of these populations are threatened by one of more factors such as land conversion, climate change and air pollution. The methods included in this collecting manual should be widely applicable (including outside Europe), with adaptation as necessary to local circumstances. Where the biology of the species is well known, the methods may be made more sophisticated. The quality of seed collections depends upon the expertise of the collector, the circumstances at the collection site on the day of collection, and the knowledge available.